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30 May 2004

U.S. Refocusing Military Strategy for War on Terror, Rumsfeld Says

Defense secretary speaks at military academy graduation ceremony

The U.S. military has re-structured its global posture since the war on terror began in 2001, U.S. Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld said May 29 during a commencement speech at the U.S. Military Academy in West Point, New York.

The new concepts guiding U.S. responsibilities in the world are based in partnerships with allies, greater force flexibility, rapid deployment capabilities and a cross-regional strategy, Rumsfeld said.

"This cause is an international one, important to all civilized societies," Rumsfeld said. "Success depends on encouraging friends and allies with whom we are so interdependent, to not be terrorized by threats, or isolated by fears."

The graduating class of 2004 entered the academy in 2001 shortly before the September 11 terrorist attacks on the United States. The cadets have undergone their training with the knowledge that they will graduate to become U.S. military officers in the global war on terror. Rumsfeld reminded the graduates of the seriousness of the responsibilities before them.

"Today, civilized societies face adversaries unlike any we've known. They seek no armistice; they have no territory to defend; they have no public to answer to," Rumsfeld said. "They threaten us through shadowy networks not easily weeded out. And they have a powerful advantage: A terrorist needs to succeed only occasionally; but as defenders, we need to be successful always."

The 935 graduates were commissioned as second lieutenants in the U.S. Army upon their graduation from West Point, a institution of military education for more than 200 years.

Following is the Defense Department transcript of the Rumsfeld speech:

(begin transcript)

United States Department of Defense

United States Military Academy Commencement
Remarks as delivered by Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld, Michie Stadium, United States Military Academy, West Point, NY, Saturday, May 29, 2004.

Thank you, General Lennox; thank you very much.

Secretary Les Brownlee, Representative Kelly, Former Representative Gilman, distinguished guests, Senator Tom Daschle - we're pleased you are here, General Brooks, General Kaufman, faculty and staff.

We have seen the family and friends of the Class of 2004 recognized, as we should. And I say greetings to that section as well.

And the Corps of Cadets, I guess they have you right up there [CHEERS]. You're looking good.

And most especially "For Country and Corps, 2004." [CHEERS].

I thank you for this honor. It's a privilege to be here in the shadows of some of the greatest leaders of our age, and to celebrate today with the leaders who will follow in their footsteps and help shape America's future.

Now, I know that every cadet has performed exceptionally well. And I assume that none of you has received a demerit or a punishment tour. But the Commander-in-Chief has nonetheless asked me to do something that probably won't apply to any of you. But on the chance that it might, I hereby grant each of you complete amnesty for any minor conduct offenses.


Graduates of the Class of 2004, you are among the select to finish this intense program that is the Academy. I know you will carry with you many memories -- of "Beast" Barracks. The "best summer of your life" at Camp Buckner. [LAUGHTER] And possibly even walking the Area.

Today, that journey ends. And you have our admiration and our respect. So ladies and gentlemen, please join me in hailing these who soon will be the newest second lieutenants in the greatest Army on the face of the Earth.


This is a very special day for your families as well. They come from all across the fifty states and American Samoa, and I'm told Cameroon, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Jordan, Kazakhstan, the Philippines, and Taiwan. You know how important their support has been. And most of all, you have benefited from their love, their confidence, their reassurance. So God bless them all.

Many years ago, there was a West Point graduate from my home state of Illinois. He marched on the same Plain as you, took similar classes, and no doubt wondered about his future, as you may have from time to time. He was not an exceptional student, I'm told. Nor did he seem marked for greatness. Interestingly, his name was incorrectly transcribed on his record.

That name was Ulysses S. Grant.

Somehow, history put Grant into a place, at a critical time, and in a critical moment. I have no doubt that West Point instilled in him those special qualities of leadership necessary to one day help preserve our Union.

In the years ahead, history may well call upon you at a critical time, in a critical moment -- and you will be ready.

Recently, a journalist visited West Point and became so impressed that he stayed for several years. David Lipsky was amazed to find a place in this country where students talked openly about the importance of character, the love of country, and the need to make sacrifices so that our nation could endure.

Interestingly, he found that West Point cadets were the happiest of any college students he had studied. [LAUGHTER]. That may surprise some of you. But he discovered something important - that there is a relationship between personal fulfillment and "Duty, Honor, Country."

Mr. Lipsky took the title of his book from something President Theodore Roosevelt once said about the Academy. Roosevelt said, "Of all the institutions in this country, none is more absolutely American; none ... more ... democratic.... Here we care nothing for ... birthplace ... creed, nor ... social standing.... Here you come together as representatives of America in a higher ... sense than can possibly be true of any other institution ..."

It is these "absolutely American" values that have led West Point graduates throughout history to distinguish themselves in the defense of our nation.

I suspect that when you first arrived in July of 2000, you imagined that your most challenging time as a professional Army officer might involve activities like enforcing the peace in the Balkans. But as we have seen, life is not predictable.

A few years ago, for example, a young man sat in one of your chairs. He was probably dreaming about his upcoming graduation leave. Some of you may remember K.C. Hughes, Class of 2001.

Well, fast-forward to Iraq, a year ago last Thursday. A pickup truck charged one of his platoon's control points, firing AK-47s. As his soldiers fired back, Hughes raced from a quarter mile away and began evacuating six wounded. Other enemies arrived in a follow-on attack.

Directing fire and helping to pull his troops to safety, he was shot in his shoulder and back, yet he continued leading the counterattack. He refused to be evacuated until his wounded were rescued. He made it out, and was awarded the Bronze Star with Valor.

The civilized world will win the global war against terror because of people like Lieutenant Hughes, and because of those of you here today.

What the terrorists do not see is that America -- our free society -- needs and has multiple leadership centers from all sectors of society. Enemies have tried many times to pull us apart. They will not succeed.

I know you understand this, because every person in this stadium has a personal connection to leadership -- and to leadership of a nation at war.

Since you arrived here, our world has changed dramatically. That change started on September 11th of your Yearling year, when terrorists converted commercial airplanes into guided missiles, striking the Twin Towers. I was in my office when a third plane hit the Pentagon. A fourth went down in a Pennsylvania field, thanks to some brave souls on board -- one of whom left us with that battle cry: "Let's roll!" And that is exactly what our country did.

Our Commander-in-Chief moved rapidly to strengthen ties with new friends and send forces abroad. As radicals and extremists attempted to hijack a religion and send us their worst, America sent its best.

President Bush formed an 80-nation global coalition. In less than three years, this coalition of civilized nations has overthrown two vicious regimes, liberated 50 million people, disrupted terrorist cells across the globe, and thwarted many terrorist attacks.

Yet despite those successes, the truth is, we are closer to the beginning of this struggle -- this global insurgency -- than to its end.

Today, civilized societies face adversaries unlike any we've known. They seek no armistice; they have no territory to defend; they have no public to answer to. They threaten us through shadowy networks not easily weeded out. And they have a powerful advantage: A terrorist needs to succeed only occasionally; but as defenders, we need to be successful always.

Our task is further complicated by our openness, our trust -- indeed the very trust that makes us the most productive, free society in the world -- but which also makes us uniquely vulnerable to those who would try to take advantage of that trust and our freedoms.

It is impossible to defend against attacks in every place, at every time, against every conceivable technique. So the only way to prevail in this struggle is to root out the terrorists before they develop still more powerful means to inflict damage on still greater numbers of innocent people.

To confront this new challenge, our nation and its military have had to adapt. Since the Cold War ended, we've been about the task of refocusing our military to meet the new challenges of this 21st Century.

Now that effort has taken on added urgency.

Your Army has been doing a truly outstanding job under the leadership of Les Brownlee and Pete Schoomaker. It's adapting to deal with asymmetrical threats, counter-terrorism, peacemaking, peacekeeping, postwar reconstruction and stability operations, and new special operations assignments. The mindset is expeditionary, emphasizing a return to that "Warrior Ethos" - mission first, never accepting defeat, and never leaving a fallen comrade.

Let me offer an example. Almost a hundred years ago, the Division replaced the Corps as the basic unit of combined arms. Today, Army leadership has concluded that technology can bring the needed capabilities down to the Brigade-level, making deploying units more modular, interchangeable, and adaptable.

We've also been rethinking our global posture. After the Cold War, U.S. forces remained essentially where they were, in a static defense posture, arranged to defend against a Soviet Empire that no longer exists. Today, dangers come from enemies that are unpredictable, who can strike around the globe with little or no warning. So we've fashioned a set of concepts to help guide America's responsibilities in this new world, working in close consultation with our allies and with the Congress. You'll be hearing more about this in the coming months. But let me set out some priorities:

-- Foremost is strengthening our partnerships with our existing allies and working with new ones;

-- Developing greater flexibility to deal with the unexpected;

-- Focusing on more rapidly deployable capabilities, rather than simply presence or mass;

-- And working within and across regions.

-- And I would add, having our forces where they are wanted.

Of special note to you is that this approach should translate into somewhat fewer moves over a career, with less disruptions to spouses and families. It's correctly said that we recruit Soldiers, but we retain families. We are keeping that reality in mind.

In short, we will be keeping our existing commitments in this still dangerous and untidy world, but we will better arrange them for an era of the unexpected.

In Iraq, we are facing a "test of wills" -- with an enemy that seeks to derail the Iraqi people's path to self-government. The extremists know that the rise of a free, self-governing Iraq, at peace with its neighbors, respectful of all religions, and committed to representative government, would deal them a decisive blow. They fear that one day the Middle East might shed itself of tyranny and violence, and carve a new future that does not include them.

This cause is an international one, important to all civilized societies. Success depends on encouraging friends and allies with whom we are so interdependent, to not be terrorized by threats, or isolated by fears.

As have the brave generations of the past, you, too, will face the enemies of freedom. Because of who you are, and because of what this Academy stands for, there is no doubt of your success.

And let me add a word about the young men and women you will have the privilege to lead: "The American Soldier," Time magazine's Person of the Year. They are the sons and daughters of America, and some of the finest people you will ever meet. Take good care of them. Lead them. Respect them.

Your love for Soldiers must be as unconditional as it is for your own families. Use the skills you've learned here to bring out the very best in them, including respect for others. And always fall back on the moral clarity of the Honor Code that you've learned here. In its spirit is the ultimate system of trust I spoke of earlier - the roots of a civil society.

This afternoon, I will be attending the dedication of the World War II Memorial in Washington. The heroes of that conflict went overseas to defend freedom. They believed in freedom, and they knew it was worth fighting for.

Today, the duty to defend freedom falls to you. It will take you across the globe as well; and it will call upon you to live the lessons that you've learned here at the Academy. I know that you will answer that call with courage and the spirit that is America. We are counting on you. Serve our nation well!

And in the years to come, I hope you will remember the love you feel around you today from family and friends, from classmates and teammates, from the faculty who supported you.

I speak to you on behalf of a President, and on behalf of a nation that is deeply grateful to you -- for your service, for your dedication, for your sacrifice.

"For Country and Corps, 2004," my congratulations. Our country's future is in capable hands. God bless you; God bless your wonderful families; and God bless the United States of America.


(end transcript)