IWS - The Information Warfare Site
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Date Internet Federal / Military / Other Computer Hacks / Defenses
1200 BC   Greeks use Trojan Horse to gain entrance to Troy  
1943   Operation HUSKY and the Man Who Never Was  
1944   Operation BODYGUARD and Operation OVERLORD  
1953   6901st Special Communications Squadron established then redesignated as the Air Force Special Communications Center (AFSCC, future AFIWC)  
1962 The RAND Corporation begins research into robust, distributed communication networks for military command and control    
1965 U.S. Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) sponsors research into a "cooperative network of time-sharing computers."    
1968.01   Tet offensive  
1969 Researchers at four US campuses create the first hosts of the DARPANET, connecting Stanford Research Institute, UCLA, UC Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah    
1970     John Draper (Captain Crunch) fakes long-distance call tones with a whistle from a cereal box
1971 DARPANET grows to 23 hosts connecting universities and government research centers around the country.    
1972 DARPANET renamed the ARPANET. Email created. InterNetworking Working Group becomes the first of several standards-setting entities to govern the growing network. Vinton Cerf is elected the first chairman of the INWG, and later becomes known as a "Father of the Internet."    
1973 ARPANET goes international with connections to University College in London, England and the Royal Radar Establishment in Norway    
1974 Bolt, Beranek & Newman opens Telenet, the first commercial version of the ARPANET    
1975.07   AFSCC redesignated as the Air Force Electronic Warfare Center (AFEWC, future AFIWC)  
1979 Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis, two grad students at Duke University, and Steve Bellovin at the University of North Carolina establish the first USENET newsgroups    
1980     First documented computer worm on experimental Ethernet at Xerox PARC
1980.01   Joint Electronic Warfare Center (JEWC, future JIOC) established under the Joint Staff  
1980 ARPANET began using Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).  It has 213 hosts. A new host is added approximately once every 20 days.    
1982 The term "Internet" is used for the first time    
1983 Military ARPANET traffic moved to new MILNET    
1984 National Science Foundation Net (NSFNET) funded as the successor to ARPANET. William Gibson coins the term "cyberspace" in his novel "Neuromancer."  The number of Internet hosts exceeds 1,000.    
1986     First commercial anti-virus software produced (four viruses found)
1986   United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) established  
1988.11     Morris Internet worm temporarily disables 6000 of the 60,000 Internet host systems
1988.12 DARPA establishes the Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) at Carnegie-Mellon University to address security concerns raised by the Morris Worm.    
1989   Soviet Aids campaign directed against the US  
1989.06     Hanover hackers (actually East German spies) break into numerous U.S. computers
1990 ARPANET decommissioned   250 computer viruses estimated to exist
1990.01      
1990.02      
1990.03      
1990.04     Dutch hackers begin attacks on DOD systems (34 sites penetrated)
1990.05      
1990.06      
1990.07      
1990.08   Operation DESERT SHIELD  
1990.09      
1990.10      
1990.11      
1990.12     Dutch hackers offer services to Iraq and are refused
1991     First commercial product called a firewall appears
1991.01   Operation DESERT STORM  
1991.02      
1991.03 At the University of Minnesota, a team led by computer programmer Mark MaCahill releases "gopher," the first point-and-click way of navigating the files of the Internet    
1991.04      
1991.05 Tim Berners-Lee, working at CERN in Switzerland, posts the first computer code of the World Wide Web in a relatively innocuous newsgroup, "alt.hypertext."    
1991.06      
1991.07      
1991.08      
1991.09 Marc Andreesen and a group of student programmers at NCSA (the National Center for Supercomputing Applications located on the campus of University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign) start development of a graphical browser for the World Wide Web called Mosaic.    
1991.10      
1991.11      
1991.12      
1992     1000 computer viruses estimated to exist
1992.01      
1992.02      
1992.03      
1992.04      
    Fleet Training and Readiness Group (future FIWC) formed by combining the Fleet Deception Group with the Fleet EW Support Group  
1992.06      
1992.07      
1992.08      
1992.09      
1992.10      
1992.11      
1992.12   DODD TS3600.1 published  
1993      
1993.01      
1993.02   World Trade Center bombing  
1993.03   Joint Staff MOP 30 published  
1993.04      
1993.05      
1993.06      
1993.07      
1993.08      
1993.09   AFEWC redesignated as the Air Force Information Warfare Center (AFIWC)  
1993.10      
1993.11 Mosaic, the first graphics-based Web browser, is released. Mogadishu withdrawal  
1993.12      
1994   Federal legislation criminalizes transmission of viruses over networks  
1994.01   Naval Information Warfare Activity (NIWA) established.
Joint Warfare Analysis Center (JWAC) established from the former Navy Warfare Analysis Center (NWAC).
Zapatistas begin distributing communiqués via list servers and other electronic means
 
1994.02      
1994.03      
1994.04      
1994.05     Rome Labs hack
1994.06     Russian hacker breaks into Citibank ($10M)
1994.07      
1994.08      
1994.09   JEWC renamed Joint Command, Control Warfare Center (JC2WC, future JIOC)  
1994.10      
1994.11      
1994.12 Netscape Navigator is released.    
1995 NSFNET reverts back to a research project, leaving the Internet in commercial hands.  The Web now comprises the bulk of Internet traffic.   6000 computer viruses estimated to exist
1995.01      
1995.02      
1995.03      
1995.04   Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building bombing  
1995.05   Land Information Warfare Activity (LIWA) established  
1995.06      
1995.07      
1995.08 Microsoft Internet Explorer is released.    
1995.09      
1995.10   Fleet Information Warfare Center (FIWC) formed by combining the Command and Control Warfare Group with the EW Operational Programming Facility  
1995.11      
1995.12      
1996      
1996.01      
1996.02      
1996.03      
1996.04      
1996.05      
1996.06      
1996.07   Joint Vision 2010 published.
President’s Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection established.
 
1996.08     First Microsoft Word macro virus
1996.09      
1996.10     Disgruntled employee erases files at Digital Technologies Group using a logic bomb
1996.11      
1996.12   DODD S3600.1 published  
1997   Army CERT established 10,000 computer viruses estimated to exist
1997.01 Microsoft Office 97 released. First version of Microsoft Outlook.    
1997.02      
1997.03      
1997.04      
1997.05   PDD-56 Managing Complex Contingency Operations published  
1997.06   Concept for Future Joint Operations published
Exercise ELIGIBLE RECEIVER ‘97
 
1997.07      
1997.08      
1997.09      
1997.10   President’s Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection reports  
1997.11      
1997.12      
1998     20,000 computer viruses estimated to exist
1998.01     Concept of FloodNet is proposed in a manual form
1998.02     Operation SOLAR SUNRISE
1998.03      
1998.04     Electronic Disturbance Theater (EDT) debuts FloodNet 1.0 to automate web site Denial of Service attacks
1998.05   Critical Infrastructure Assurance Office established
National Information Protection Center (NIPC)
PDD-62 Combating Terrorism published
PDD-63 Critical Infrastructure Protection published
Attempted EDT FloodNet attack on the White House website
1998.06      
1998.07      
1998.08   African embassy bombings  
1998.09   DOD website content review Attempted EDT FloodNet attack on DISA
1998.10   JC2WC realigned under U.S. Atlantic Command (USACOM). Joint Pub 3-13 published. Trung Nat Ngo pleads guilty to cyber harassment
1998.11      
    Joint Task Force for Computer Network Defense (JTF-CND) established under USACOM. Operation DESERT FOX  
1999     45,000 computer viruses estimated to exist
1999.01      
1999.02      
1999.03   Operation ALLIED FORCE Melissa computer virus. Operation MOONLIGHT MAZE.
1999.04   PDD-68 International Public Information (IPI) published  
1999.05      
1999.06      
1999.07      
1999.08      
1999.09      
1999.10   U.S. Space Command (USSPACECOM) assumes the computer network attack mission. JC2WC renamed the Joint Information Operations Center (JIOC). JIOC realigned under USSPACECOM. JTF-CND realigned under USSPACECOM.  
1999.11      
1999.12      
2000      
2000.01      
2000.02     E-commerce DDoS Attacks
2000.03      
2000.04      
2000.05   Exercise TOPOFF VBS.ILOVEYOU virus. VBS.LoveLetter worm.
2000.06   Israeli withdrawal from south Lebanon. Joint Vision 2020.  
2000.07      
2000.08      
2000.09      
2000.10   JTF-CNO assumes lead for CNA  
2000.11      
2000.12      
2001      
2001.01     DirecTV attack on hacked cards
2001.02      
2001.03      
2001.04   JTF-CND renamed the Joint Task Force for Computer Network Operations (JTF-CNO)  
2001.05      
2001.06      
2001.07   Network Centric Warfare report published  
2001.08      
2001.09   World Trade Center/Pentagon attacked  
2001.10      
2001.11      
2001.12      
2002      
2002.01      
2002.02   Office of Strategic Influence  
2002.03      
2002.04      
2002.05      
2002.06      
2002.07   EXERCISE Millennium Challenge  
2002.08      
2002.09      
2002.10   USSPACECOM combined with USSTRATCOM  
2002.11      
2002.12      
2003      
2003.01      
2003.02      
2003.03      
2003.04      
2003.05      
2003.06      
2003.07      
2003.08      
2003.09      
2003.10      
2003.11      
2003.12      

Last updated: 05 December 2002