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InfoOps Terms

Joint Pub 3-13:

Computer Network Attack
Information Operations
Offensive IO
Defensive IO
Information Assurance
Information Warfare


Computer Network Attack (CNA)

(DOD) Operations to disrupt, deny, degrade, or destroy information resident in computers and computer networks, or the computers and networks themselves. Electronic attack (EA) can be used against a computer, but it is not computer network attack (CNA). CNA relies on the data stream to execute the attack while EA relies on the electromagnetic spectrum. An example of the two operations is the following: sending a code or instruction to a central processing unit that causes the computer to short out the power supply is CNA. Using an electromagnetic pulse device to destroy a computer's electronics and causing the same result is EA. Also called CNA. See also computer network defense; electronic attack; offensive information operations. (Source DTIC)

Information Operations (IO) - Actions taken to affect adversary information and information systems while defending one's own information and information systems.

Offensive Information Operations - Involve the integrated use of assigned and supporting capabilities and activities, mutually supported by intelligence, to affect adversary decision makers to achieve or promote specific objectives

Defensive Information Operations - Integrate and coordinate policies and procedures, operations, personnel, and technology to protect and defend information systems. Defensive IO ensure timely, accurate, and relevant information access while denying adversaries the opportunity to exploit friendly information systems for their own purpose.

Information Assurance (IA) - Information Operations that protect and defend information and information systems by ensuring their availability, integrity, authenticity, confidentiality, and non-repudiation. This includes providing for restoration of information systems by incorporating protection, detection, and reaction capabilities.

Information Warfare (IW) - Information Operations conducted during time of crises or conflict to achieve or promote specific objectives over a specific adversary or adversaries.

Information - The meaning that a human assigns to data by means of the known conventions used in their representation. It is facts, data, or instructions in any medium or form.

Data - A representation of facts, concepts, or instructions in a formalized manner suitable for communications, interpretations, or processing by humans or by automatic means. It is any representation such as characters or analog quantities to which meaning is, or might be assigned. (Joint Pub 1-02)

Definition of Information Warfare from Wikipedia

Joint Task Force - Computer Network Operations Factsheet

Joint Information Operations Center Fact Sheet

Essential Documents | Articles |Links

Information is the currency of victory on the battlefield.

GEN Gordon Sullivan, CSA (1993)

Definition of Information Operations:

'The integrated employment of the core capabilities of electronic warfare [EW], computer network operations [CNO], psychological operations [PSYOP], military deception, and operations security [OPSEC], with specified supporting and related capabilities to influence, disrupt, corrupt, or usurp adversarial human and automated decisionmaking while protecting our own.'

DOD Information Operations Roadmap, 30. October 2003

Essential Documents


pdf Information Operations Primer [1.9 MB], US Army War College, November 2006

pdf JP 3-13: Joint Doctrine for Information Operations [2.4MB], published in February 2006 (JP 3-13: Joint Doctrine for Information Operations [1652K] published in October 1998)

pdf The Official US Air Force Doctrine Document 2-5: Information Operations published in January 2005 [Version January 2002, version August 1998]

DOD Information Operations Roadmap [2.4MB], 30. October 2003, posted January 2006 (courtesy of the National Security Archive)

Field Manual (FM) 3-13: Information Operations: Doctrine, Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures, [7 MB] Headquarters, Department of the Army, 28 November 2003 (This publication supersedes FM 100-6, 27 August 1996)

Information Operations Interview with Dr. Dan Kuehl from the National Defense University, Infocon Magazine Issue One, October 2003

Joint IO Planning Handbook [3.9MB], Joint Command, Control and Information Warfare School Joint Forces Staff College, NDU July 2003 [Old version July 2002]

Information Operations: The Hard Reality of Soft Power, Joint Command, Control and Information Warfare School Joint Forces Staff College, NDU, 2002

A Concept for Information Operations, US Marine Corps, Marine Corps Combat Development Command, Quantico, Virginia 22134-5001, April 2002

Directive Number 3600.1 - Revision One, Department of Defense, , Information Operations, ASD(C3I), October 2001

Chapter 11 Information Superiority - Field Manual No. FM 3-0, Headquarters Department of the Army, June 2001

Protecting the Homeland - Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Defensive Information Operations 2000 Summer Study Volume II [1.2 MB] The Defense Science Board Task Force on Defensive Information Operations Related concludes that the United States cannot today defend itself from an information operations attack by a sophisticated nation-state adversary. They also state that the vulnerability of the United States is greater than in 1996 and that more than 20 countries have or are developing computer attack capabilities [published March 2001].

MCWP 3-36 Information Operations, U.S. Marine Corps Coordinating Draft, February 2001

Information Warfare and International Law [Legal Aspects Chapter] by Lawrence T. Greenberg, Seymour E. Goodman and Kevin J. Soo Hoo [National Defense University Press]

Joint Doctrine for Electronic Warfare Joint Publication 3-51, 7 April 2000

US Army Field Manual 100-6 on Information Operations published in August 1996 by the US Army Command and General Staff College

Information Warfare Delphi: Raw Results by Roger Dean Thrasher, Naval Postgraduate School, June 1996

What is Information Warfare? Martin Libicki National Defense University ACIS Paper 3 which was published in August 1995.

TRADOC Pamphlet 525-69: Military Operations Concept for Information Operations, Department of the Army Headquarters, United States Army Training and Doctrine Command Fort Monroe, 1 August 1995

OPNAV 3430.26, [1.8 MB] US Navy implementing instructions for Information Warfare/Command and Control Warfare(IW/C2W), 1/18/95

OPNAV 3430.25, Information Warfare and Command and Control Warfare, 4/1/94

Information Operations Courses

USAF: Information Warfare Applications Course (IWAC) (requires Macromedia's Shockwave/Flash Player) - the objective of IWAC is to provide students with a broad understanding of information operations. See also USAF: Information Warfare Applications Course (IWAC) Class Information

Information Warfare - this tutorial provides an introduction to Information Warfare. While exploring, consider the consequences for modern armies that depend upon advanced communications systems that may not be superior to the technological threat of an otherwise mediocre combat force. Army Management Staff College

Information Warfare Tutorial is a condensation of material presented through an advanced course dedicated to the subject of Information Warfare and offered by the US Army War College in 1997.



General Articles

Testimony on the Report of the Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Attack, House Armed Services Committee, July 2004

Information Operations in Iraq by Major Norman Emery, U.S. Army, Military Review May-June 2004 English Edition

Information Operations in Support of Special Operations by Lieutenant Colonel Bradley Bloom, U.S. Army, Military Review, January-February 2004

Measuring 'Digital Wars': Learning From The Experience of Peace Research and Arms Controlby Giampiero Giacomello, Department of Political Science, University of Bologna, Italy, Infocon Magazine Issue One, October 2003

CALL - Information Operations Lessons Learned, Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL) 2003 - December 1996

JFSC JCIWS IW Divison - IO Timeline

Joint Task Force - Computer Network Operations (JTF-CNO) Fact File, February 2003

Information Operations by LTC Peter L. Burnett Jr., Strategy Research Project, April 2002

Information Operations and Asymmetric Warfare…Are We Ready? by LTC LaWarren V. Patterson, Strategy Research Project, April 2002

The Joint Reserve Component Virtual Information Operations Organization (JRVIO); Cyber Warriors Just a Click Away by Peter S, Duklis, Jr., Strategy Research Project, April 2002

Information Operations: Computer Network Attack in the 21st Century by Williamson, Jennie M.; Army War College

Chinese Information Warfare: A Phantom Menace or Emerging Threat? by Mr. Toshi Yoshihara (November 2001). As a step to clarify the future direction of Chinese information warfare (IW) and to identify new areas for further research, this monograph explores Chinese perspectives of IW through a sampling of the burgeoning open literature circulating in China. The author provides a preliminary assessment of these Chinese writings and analysis, and demonstrates some linkages and parallels to America's current debates on IW, the Soviet-U.S. competition, Clausewitz's classic dictums, and Chinese strategic culture. He concludes with implications of future developments in Chinese IW for American policy.

The Ethics of Computer Network Attack by William J. Bayles, From Parameters, Spring 2001, pp. 44-58.

Understanding Information Age Warfare [6 MB] by David S. Alberts, John J. Garstka, Richard E. Hayes and David A. Signori - August 2001

Information Operations published by the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) July 17, 2001

Cyberwarfare, CRS Report for Congress Updated June 19, 2001

Wielding the Cyber Sword: Exploiting the Power of Information Operations by Randal A. Dragon, Strategy Research Project, March 2001

Information Warfare: Time to Prepare Reprinted with permission from ISSUES IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY , Berkowitz, "Information Warfare: Time to Prepare' Winter 2000-01, pp 37-44. Copyright 2000 by the University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX

Information Superiority and the Future of DoD: Opportunities, Risks, and Challenges [168 slides] by Dr. David S. Alberts

Like Adding Wings to the Tiger: Chinese Information War Theory and Practice by Mr. Timothy L. Thomas , Foreign Military Studies Office, Fort Leavenworth, KS.

Are We Our Own Worst Enemy? Safeguarding Information Operations, CIA Studies in Intelligence Magazine, Summer 2000, No. 9

Information Operations: An Act of War? Maj David J. DiCenso, USAF, Reserves, Air & Space Power Chronicles, July 2000

Information Warfare Planning for the Whens- Not ifs- of Cyberattacks This article was published in the Northrop Grumman Review Issue One, July 2000 (article courtesy of Northrop Grumman)

Military Critical Technologies - Section 10 Information Technology [589K] published by the US Department  of Defense - Defense Threat Reduction Agency  [May 2000]

Cyber Attack Response: The Military in a Support Role by Col(S) Nonie C. Cabana, Air & Space Power Chronicles, April 2000

Don’t Techno for an Answer - The False Promise of Information Warfare by
Brent Stuart Goodwin, NWCR Spring 2000

The Impact of New Technologies in the Military Arena: Information Warfare by Captain Paulo Fernando Viegas Nunes, Portuguese Army, Air & Space Power Chronicles - Chronicles Articles, March 2001

The Worldwide Threat in 2000 - Statement by the Director of the CIA, George Tenet Before the Senate Committee on Armed Services, 3 February 2000 

History and Evolution of IO,
[5.4MB] Prepared by the Joint IO Center, January 2000

A light-hearted Look at Information Warfare by Anton Coetzee 

What is Information Warfare? Col Andrew Borden, USAF (Ret.),
Air & Space Power Chronicles, November 1999

DSA IS Brief 12-99: Information Superiority and Network Centric Warfare by
Dr. David S. Alberts, also available as PowerPoint Version [5 MB]: DSA IS PowerPoint Brief 12-99

Information Warfare and International Security NATO Parliamentary Assembly Report as285stc(99)8e  by the Science and Technology Committee, 6 October 1999 

CNE and CNA in the Network Centric Battlespace - Challenges for Operators and Lawyers,
Welcoming Address by VADM A. K. Cebrowski, USN, Naval War College Symposium Computer Network "Attack" and International Law, 22 June 1999

The Implications of Virtual Deception by
Lt York W. Pasanen, Air & Space Power Chronicles, April 1999

Information Warfare The new battlespace is forcing system administrators to install layers of defense at the microchip level and for Sailors to become cyber warriors. by Lt. Cmdr. Irene M. Smith (published in March/April 1999 Surface Warfare Magazine Vol. 24, No. 2

Physical Attack Information Operations in Bosnia: Counterinformation in a Peace Enforcement Environment by Arthur N. Tulak, MAJ, USA Military Analyst, Center for Army Lessons Learned, Air & Space Power Chronicles, March 1999

Unrestricted Warfare by Qiao Liang and Wang Xiangsui (Beijing: PLA Literature and Arts Publishing House, February 1999)

Moltke as a Model for Information Warfare - Daniel P. Gallagher, NDU Class of 1998, Course 5602 - Fundamentals of Military Thought and Strategy, Seminar A

Information Warfare: Same wine, different bottle? by Lt Kurt Konopatzke, USAF, Air & Space Power Chronicles, 1995-98

Information Warfare: New Roles for Information Systems in Military Operations by Captain George A. Crawford, Air & Space Power Chronicles, 1995-98

Achieving Information Superiority by Patricia M. Barwinczak, Military Review Volume LXXVIII - September - November 1998

Information System Components of Information Operations
by Major Arthur N. Tulak, US Army, and Major James E. Hutton, US Army ,Military Review Volume LXXVIII - September - November 1998

Information Warfare:  Task Force XXI or Task Force Smith? by Major Curtis A. Carver Jr., US Army Military Review Volume LXXVIII - September - November 1998

Defensive Information Operations - A J6 Perspective Defensive Information Strategy at United States Central Command, CHIPS October 1998 (the Department of the Navy Information Technology Magazine)

Information Operations, Deterrence, and the Use of Force by Roger W. Barnett, NWC Review, Spring 1998

Conflict and the Computer: Information Warfare and Related Ethical Issues Published and Presented by Sam Nitzberg at Ethicomp '98 Fourth International Conference on Ethical Issues of Information Technology, March, 1998, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Radio Frequency Weapons and Proliferation: Potential Impact on the Economy Hearing before the Joint Economic Committee, February 25, 1998

Information Warfare: OPFOR Doctrine: News From The Front! (Sep - Oct 1997), by MAJ Erin J. Gallogly-Staver, Threat Support Directorate and MAJ Raymond S. Hilliard, Battle Command Training Program ( This article was previously published in the Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin (MIPB)).

Information Warfare and the Millennium Bomb NATO Parliamentary Assembly Draft General Report by the Science and Technology Committee, 1 September 1997 

IO Documents, Deputy Chief of Staff for Combat Developments, 1997

US JP 3-54: Joint Doctrine for Operations Security [394K] published in January 1997

Cornerstones of Information Warfare
USAF paper on information warfare and its relation to air power

Information Warfare and Deterrence written by Gary F. Wheatley and Richard E. Hayes, NDU Press Book, December 1996

Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Information Warfare - Defense (IW-D) published in November 1996

Deterring Information Warfare: A New Strategic Challenge by Timothy L. Thomas
From Parameters, Winter 1996-97, pp. 81-91

Information Operations: A New War-Fighting Capability - A Research Paper Presented To Air Force 2025 by LTC William B. Osborne (USA), Maj Scott A. Bethel, Maj Nolen R. Chew, Maj Philip M. Nostrand and Maj YuLin G. Whitehead, August 1996

Information Operations: Wisdom Warfare For 2025 - A Research Paper Presented To Air Force 2025 by Lt Col Edward F. Murphy, Maj Gary C. Bender, Maj Larry J. Schaefer, Maj Michael M. Shepard and Maj Charles W. Williamson III, April 1996

Information Warfare and the Canadian Forces published in May 1996 (courtesy of the Canadian National Defense Headquarters)

Information Operations: Wisdom Warfare For 2025 -
A Research Paper Presented To Air Force 2025 by Lt Col Edward F. Murphy, Maj Gary C. Bender, Maj Larry J. Schaefer, Maj Michael M. Shepard and Maj Charles W. Williamson III, April 1996

Some Cautionary Thoughts on Information Warfare by R. L. DiNardo and Daniel J. Hughes, published in Airpower Journal Winter 1995

A Theory of Information Warfare by Col Richard Szafranski, published in Airpower Journal - Spring 1995

Information Warfare by Prof George J. Stein, AWC, published in Airpower Journal - Spring 1995

Weapons of Mass Protection, Nonlethality, Information Warfare, and Airpower in the Age of Chaos by Chris Morris, Janet Morris and Thomas Baines, published in Airpower Journal - Spring 1995

Information Operations: The Fifth Dimension of Warfare Remarks as delivered by Gen. Ronald R. Fogleman, Air Force chief of staff, to the Armed Forces Communications-Electronics Association, Washington, April 25, 1995

Desert Storm: The First Information War? by Col Edward Mann, USAF, published in Aerospace Power Journal - Winter 1994

Information Warfare: Principles of Third Wave War by Col Owen E. Jenson, published in Aerospace Power Journal - Winter 1994

US Air Force Student Research Papers on Information Warfare and InfoSec (Air University at Maxwell Air Base)

2002 Research Papers

Plays Well with Others: Enhancing DoD’s Role in Protecting the National Information Infrastructure by Durall, William

Public Diplomacy—Capturing the Information Terrain on the Way to Victory by Linda R. Urrutia-Varhall, Lt Col, USAF

2001 Research Papers

A Process for Vectoring Offensive Information Warfare as a Primary Weapon Option within the United States Air Force by Sheila G. Bennett Captain, USAF

Active Computer Network Defense: An Assessment by Eric J. Holdaway, Major, USAF

Air Force Information Operations (IO) Doctrine: Consistent with Joint IO Doctrine? by Robert E. Blackington, Major, USAF

Information War Crimes: Mitnick meets Milosevic by Darwyn Banks

Malicious Hackers: A Framework for Analysis and Case Study, Laura J. Kleen, Captain, USAF, AFIT/GOR/ENS/01M-09

Meeting The Joint Vision 2020 Challenge: Organizing For Information Operations by John D. Bansemer, Major, USAF

Modeling Information Assurance by Joseph Edward Beauregard, 2nd Lieutenant, USAF

The Spectrum Of Cyber Conflict From Hacking To Information Warfare: What Is Law Enforcement's Role? by Bonnie Adkins

2000 Research Papers

Air War Over Serbia: It Is Important To Win The Information War

The Art of Balancing Information Security and Information Sharing

Future Information Operations (Io) In The Military: Is It Time For An Io Cinc?

Information System Incidents: The Development of a Damage Assessment

Modeling Information Assurance: A Value Focused Thinking Approach

Operationalizing Information Operations

Steganographic Computer Warfare

Towards a Game Theory Model Of Information Warfare

Viral Computer Warfare via Activation Engine Employing Steganography

1999 Research Papers

China as Peer Competitor?

Ignoring the Riptide of Information Operations

Informations Operations: Moving from doctrine to execution

Organizing Joint Forces for Information Operations: The Viability of a Joint Force Information Operations Component Commander

Vital Interests, Virtual Threats: Reconciling International Law with Information Warfare and United States Security

1998 Research Papers

Information Operations: America's Plan for Strategic Failure

1997 Research Papers

An Analysis of Unclassified Current and Pending Air Force Information Warfare and Information Operations Doctrine and Policy

Information As A Weapon Reality Versus Promises

International Law: How it Affects Rules of Engagement and Responses in Information Warfare?

The One with the Most Information Wins? The Quest for Information Superiority

Operation Integration of Information Warfare

1996 Research Papers

Information Operations: A New War-Fighting Capability

Information Operations: Wisdom Warfare for 2025

The Need For USAF Information Warfare (IW) Strategy For Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW)

1995 Research Papers

Information Warfare: Impact And Concerns

German IO Articles

Krieg als Information von Dr. Goedart Palm

Der Kosovo-Krieg im Cyberspace - Cracker, Infowar und Medienkrieg von Ralf Bendrath

Postmoderne Kriegsdiskurse von Ralf Bendrath

Information Operations Links

For more links visit our new link directory

How to Link to IWS

US Military

U.S. Air Force Information Warfare Center 'is a collocated unit of the Air Intelligence Agency, Kelly Air Force Base, Texas. The Center is engaged in a myriad of activities supporting its role as the Air Force Information Warfare executive agent. AFIWC's mission is to develop, maintain and deploy information warfare/command and control warfare capabilities in support of operations, campaign planning, acquisition and testing.'

U.S. Army - Land Information Warfare Activity (LIWA). Location: Fort Belvoir, VA. The LIWA provides Information Warfare and Command and Control Warfare support to land component and separate Army commands, both active and reserve, to facilitate planning and execution of Information Operations. The LIWA consists of four directorates: Plans/Operations Support, Intelligence/Analysis Support, Information Support, and System Threat Assessment. The ARAT-TA constitutes the System Threat Assessment Directorate and the Chief, ARAT-TA, reports directly to the LIWA Director.

U.S. Navy Fleet Information Warfare Center 'Our mission is to provide continuously improving IW support, which encompasses and integrates all IW disciplines, to deploying and operating Naval forces worldwide as tasked by CINCLANTFLT, CINCPACFLT, CINCUSNAVEUR, and COMUSNAVCENT.'

U.S. Navy - Naval Information Warfare Activity (NIWA). The Naval Information Warfare Activity (NIWA) at Ft Meade is the Navy's principal technical agent to research, assess, develop and prototype Information Warfare (IW) capabilities. This recently created activity supports the development capabilities encompassing all aspects of IW attack, protect and exploit. A key focus of efforts in this line is providing tactical commanders with an IW Mission Planning, Analysis, and Command and Control Targeting System (IMPACTS) tool. An aggressive program is maintained to acquire and analyze state-of-the-art technologies (software and hardware), evaluate fleet applicability and prototype developmental capabilities. NIWA is the Navy's interface with other Service and National IW organizations, working closely with the Fleet Information Warfare Center (FIWC) to develop of IW technical capabilities for Navy and Joint Operations.

Defense Threat Reduction Agency Military Critical Technologies (MCT) is a US military connected service whose purpose is to document major problems of military technologies.

Information Warfare Academic Group at the Naval Postgraduate School

Information Warfare Applications Course 'USAF IWAC Educates students in the fundamentals of Air Force information Operations doctrine and provides students insight into how the doctrine may be applied across the spectrum from peace to war.'

Joint Command, Control, and Information Warfare School 'JCIWS is designed to prepare students for joint duty in the C4I and Information Warfare communities. The school is composed of a C4I and an IW division, offering variety of educational opportunities to the joint community.'

School of Information Warfare and Strategy NDU 'The School of Information Warfare and Strategy (IWS) provides a senior-level course of study in the information component of national power. The academic program focuses on the use of information in the planning and execution of national strategy, military strategy and joint operations.'

Peterson Air Force Base Colorado Springs the home of NORAD and US Space Command


TNO Physics and Electronics Laboratory in The Hague resources dedicated to Information Operations

Infowar.com Winn Schwartau's site devoted to Infowar. Great Resource.

Infoguerre.com A French website which mainly focuses on the use of information as an economic "weapon".

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