Under Secretary Dr. Charles E. McQueary Department of Homeland
SecurityScience and Technology Directorate
Before the House Select Committee
on Homeland Security Subcommittee on Cybersecurity, Science, and
Research and Development
Good afternoon. Chairman Thornberry, Ranking Member Lofgren, and
distinguished members of the subcommittee. It is a pleasure to be
with you today to discuss the Department of Homeland Security's Science
and Technology Directorate. It is a great honor and a great responsibility
to lead the science and technology efforts of this Directorate and
the Department to meet the challenges of protecting our homeland
and our way of life.
The most important mission for the Science and Technology Directorate
is to develop and deploy cutting edge technologies and new capabilities,
so that the dedicated men and women who serve to secure our homeland
can perform their jobs more effectively and efficiently - they are
my customers. Our plans for FY 2004 reflect this relationship and
our desire to provide capability to the field as rapidly as is possible.
The threats to our homeland are many. We must constantly monitor
these threats and assess our vulnerabilities to them; develop new
or improved capabilities to counter chemical, biological, radiological,
nuclear, explosive, and cyber threats; and mitigate the effects of
terrorists attacks should they occur. The Science and Technology
Directorate's program must also enhance all of the Department's missions,
whether or not they are focused on the threat of terrorism.
Throughout the initial planning process for the S&T Directorate we
have been guided by the Homeland Security Act, current threat assessments,
our understanding of capabilities that exist today or that can be
expected to appear in the near term, and, importantly, by the priorities
spelled out in the President's National Strategy for Homeland Security.
Thus, our key specific areas of emphasis are to:
1. Develop and deploy state-of-the art, high-performance, low operating-cost
systems to prevent the illicit traffic of radiological/nuclear materials
and weapons into and within the United States.
2. Provide state-of-the art, high-performance, low operating-cost
systems to rapidly detect and mitigate the consequences of the release
of biological and chemical agents.
3. Provide state-of-the art, high-performance, low operating-cost
systems to detect and prevent illicit high explosives transit into
and within the United States.
4. Enhance missions of all Department operational units through targeted
research, development, test and evaluation (RDT&E), and systems engineering
5. Develop and provide capabilities for protecting cyber and other
6. Develop capabilities to prevent new-technology as a surprise weapon
by anticipating emerging threats.
7. Develop, coordinate and implement technical standards for chemical,
biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) non-medical countermeasures.
Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Portfolio
We are requesting $803M in FY 2004 to provide applied research, development,
demonstrations, and testing of products and systems that address
these key areas of emphasis. The Science and Technology Directorate
will implement its activities through focused portfolios that address
biological, chemical, radiological and nuclear, and cyber threats;
support the research and development needs of the operational units
of the Department; and receive innovative input from private industry
and academia as well as national and Federal laboratories. In particular,
the Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency (HSARPA)
will have an essential role in meeting the goals and objectives of
the Department and the Directorate across the range of the portfolios.
These portfolios and activities are described as follows:
Biological Countermeasures - Biological threats come in many forms.
They can be toxins, viruses, or bacteria, distributed by airborne
aerosols, or in food or water supplies, or in the case of contagious
diseases, spread among infected people or animals. Timely detection
and early initiation of prophylaxis and decontamination is the key
to mitigating the consequences of any biological attack, should it
occur. We are requesting $365M in FY 2004 to:
- Develop and deploy a Biological Warning and Incident Characterization
System (BWIC). BWIC will consist of three major elements: a nationwide
bio-surveillance system that looks for early biological indicators
of the exposure of people, animals and plants to biological agents;
development of a public health surveillance system working through
the Department of Health and Human Services and its Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) public health surveillance
system to detect early adverse health events in the population
as a result of such agents; and environmental monitoring networks
in selected cities that can detect the agent directly. S&T plans
to work closely with the CDC in developing this seamless sentinel
system. This activity will be available as a pilot in FY 2004.
- Continue the National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures
Center (NBACC), initiated in FY03, as a key component in implementing
the President's National Strategy for Homeland Security. The
NBACC will leverage the expertise of America's cutting-edge medical
and biotechnical infrastructure to focus on the biological agent
threat, including performing risk assessments. It is an essential,
new approach to integrating national resources for homeland security,
supporting public health, and law enforcement. The analytical
capabilities of the NBACC will be functional in FY 2004, and
closely coordinated with the National Institute of Health and
the Food and Drug Administration.
Finally, the Plum Island Animal Disease Center is expected to be
transferred from the Department of Agriculture to DHS in June 2003.
We plan to work closely with USDA in areas of mutual concern in animal
disease research and diagnostics.
Chemical Countermeasures - According to the National Research Council's
Report Making the Nation Safer, "chemicals continue to be the weapon
of choice for terrorist attacks. They are readily available and have
the potential to inflict significant casualties." In fact, terrorist
attacks on civilian populations with chemical warfare agents have
already occurred. In the Aum Shrinrikyo attack on the Tokyo subway,
casualties were limited only because the attackers did not use an
effective agent dispersal method. Similarly, accidental releases
of toxic industrial chemicals have demonstrated that materials relatively
widely available in modern industrial societies can result in a large
number of casualties.
Significant work on chemical defense in military situations has been
conducted focusing on battlefield attacks using chemical warfare
agents. However, major gaps exist regarding civilian defense, most
notably in strategies for dealing with the broader spectrum of threats
(e.g. toxic industrial materials); detection systems capable of continuous
monitoring with very low false positive rates; deployed chemical
defense systems; and a robust forensic capability. The Chemical Countermeasures
portfolio is requesting $55M to address these shortcomings through
a balanced mix of activities: 1) systems studies will be used to
prioritize efforts amongst the many possible chemical threats and
targets; 2) new detection and forensic technologies will be developed
and demonstrated; 3) protective systems that integrate physical security,
ultra-sensitive detection, information management, and consequence
management strategies will be developed and piloted in selected high
value facilities such as airports and subways; 4) the Science and
Technology Directorate will work with the Information Analysis and
Infrastructure Protection and Borders and Transportation Security
Directorates to characterize and reduce the vulnerability posed by
the large volumes of toxic industrial materials in use by the critical
infrastructures, stored or transported within this nation; and 5)
ensuring coordination with the CDC for public health response and
management of detected events.
High Explosives - Detection of high explosives and mitigation is
now a prime focus of the Transportation Security Administration (TSA).
The current terrorist threat extends beyond air transport to all
other modes of transportation and fixed facilities. The Department
of Homeland Security will build on TSA's R&D in this area to develop
and deploy more effective explosives detectors that can address the
broader threats. Development of reliable stand-off detection capability
of large quantities of explosives, especially in vehicles, is particularly
needed. For this purpose $10M is requested in FY 2004.
Radiological and Nuclear Countermeasures - Countering the threat
of radiological or nuclear attack is one of the top priorities of
the Department of Homeland Security and the Science and Technology
Directorate. The Radiological and Nuclear Countermeasures portfolio
is requesting $137M to address this threat through a comprehensive
systems approach that emphasizes early detection; effective intervention
capabilities at the Federal, state and local levels; development
of mitigation technologies and science-based consequence management
programs for use should an attack occur; and effective training at
all levels of response. Concurrent efforts focused on deployment,
evaluation and improvements to currently available technologies;
a research and development program for advanced technologies and
their continuous insertion into operational use; and the provision
for an enduring science and technology base to address long-term
challenges such as the detection of highly-enriched uranium and heavily
shielded radioactive sources is used to address both today's threats
and those of the future.
Threat and Vulnerability, Testing and Assessment - The purpose of
the Threat and Vulnerability, Testing and Assessment (TVTA) program
is to create advanced modeling, and information and analysis capabilities
that can be used by the organizations in the Department to fulfill
their missions and objectives. One thrust of this program is to develop
advanced computing, information, and assessment capabilities in support
of threat and vulnerability analysis, detection, prevention and response.
This portfolio also conducts extensive research and development activities
in the area of cybersecurity, addressing areas not currently addressed
elsewhere in the Federal government. An example of this is developing
tools and techniques for assessing and detecting the insider threat.
The TVTA program uses a strategy of multi-year investments that infuse
new capabilities into the DHS mission directorates on a regular basis
based on strategic five year road maps. A spiral development process
ensures early use and feedback by intended users and operators of
all technologies developed within the program. Successively, more
complete and refined prototypes lead to operational pilots and fully
operational systems for the Department organizations. $90M is requested
in FY 2004 to support this activity.
Critical Infrastructure Protection - Our national infrastructure
provides the continual flow of goods and services that are essential
to the defense and economic security of the United States. Many of
these functions are so vital that major disruptions would cause severe
consequences to the behavior and activities of our citizens. Our
free society and the high quality of life that we value depend upon
the reliable operation of the infrastructure. In addition, we must
protect the lives of our citizens and key assets such as many national
monuments and icons.
The Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) portfolio has three
primary goals: 1) develop, implement, and evolve a rational approach
for prioritizing CIP strategies and resource allocations using modeling,
simulation, and analyses to assess vulnerabilities, consequences,
and risks; 2) propose and evaluate protection, mitigation, response,
and recovery strategies and options; and 3) provide real-time support
to decision makers during crises and emergencies - $5M is requested
in FY 2004 for this activity, which also leverages work being done
elsewhere in the Federal government and the Department of Homeland
Standards/State and Local Programs - Standards should be applied
to all elements of the homeland security infrastructure to ensure
a robust capability to defend against and to respond to any crisis
situation - whether it is the result of terrorism, natural causes,
or a catastrophic accident. Organizing and integrating the efforts
of the government and the private sector will enable the Department
of Homeland Security to develop standards for equipment used for
detection of materials that could be used in a terrorist attack.
This will reduce the probability of a successful terrorist attack
on the United States and facilitate development of a vital and enduring
ability to respond to national emergencies.
The Standards/State & Local Program will provide consistent and verifiable
measures of effectiveness of homeland security related equipment
and systems in terms of basic functionality, appropriateness and
adequacy for the task, interoperability, efficiency, and sustainability.
The Science and Technology Directorate will facilitate the development
of guidelines in conjunction with both users and developers. The
guidelines will encompass user needs and operating conditions, as
well as the capabilities and the limitations of the technologies.
The Standards/State and Local Program will develop, in collaboration
with operational end-users, performance measures, testing protocols,
certification methods, and a reassessment process appropriate to
each threat countermeasure and for the integrated system. The Standards/State
and Local Program will address all elements of the homeland security
mission including equipment, information, analyses, personnel, and
systems. Special emphasis will be placed on soliciting input from
the actual users in the state and local response communities, and
on providing effective methods for communicating information back
to these agencies.
Major program objectives include working with the private sector
to establish a network of homeland security certification laboratories.
This will provide a consistent level of assurance in the effectiveness
of detection and other operational equipment. Consistent standards
for training and certification of personnel will also be developed.
The program will continue to broaden the suite of technical standards
for various forms of equipment and systems and will provide protocols
and standard data collection formats for test and evaluation projects
undertaken by the Science and Technology Directorate. $25M is requested
in FY 2004 to support this important effort.
Support to Department of Homeland Security Components - The Science
and Technology Directorate has the responsibility to provide Federal,
state and local operational end-users with the technology and capabilities
to protect the United States homeland from catastrophic terrorist
attacks and enhance their capabilities for conducting their conventional
missions. An essential component of this responsibility is to coordinate
and collaborate with the other components of the Department to assist
and enhance their technical capabilities through integrated research
and development activities. The integration of the Science and Technology
Directorate research and development efforts with the Information
Analysis and Infrastructure Protection Directorate is specifically
described in the Threat and Vulnerability, Testing and Assessment,
and the Critical Infrastructure Protection portfolios. In addition,
the Science and Technology Directorate will support the mission needs
of the Border and Transportation Security Directorate, the United
States Coast Guard, the United States Secret Service and the Emergency
Preparedness and Response Directorate through coordinated and focused
research and development programs. Research and development in potentially
high payoff technologies will be emphasized. $55M is requested in
FY 2004 for this purpose.
Rapid Prototyping Program - Significant capabilities exist in private
industry for the rapid development and prototyping of technologies
in support of the homeland security mission. A mechanism to quickly
and easily access the capabilities of private industry will allow
the Department of Homeland Security to more effectively fulfill its
The Science and Technology Directorate will establish a partnership
with the Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) to provide the Department
with a technology clearinghouse to encourage and support innovative
solutions to enhance homeland security and to engage the private
sector in rapid prototyping of homeland security technologies. $30M
is requested in FY 2004 to solicit from the private sector near-term
capability that can be rapidly prototyped and fielded.
Homeland Security Fellowship Programs/University Programs - Advancements
in science and technology have the potential to change or increase
the threats to our security; these advancements also improve our
ability to thwart these emerging threats. A knowledgeable workforce
focused on homeland security is essential to our ability to address
advancements in science and technology.
The vast scope of the science and technology needed to address homeland
security coupled with declining enrollments in specific areas such
as nuclear science and technology, and radiochemistry are leading
to a lack of qualified applicants for relevant research and development.
This program requests $10M to support strategic partnerships with
the academic community to provide support for qualified students
Emerging Threats - Advancements in science and technology have the
potential to change or increase the threats to our security. These
advancements also improve our ability to thwart these emerging threats.
The Emerging Threats program will support the exploration of innovative,
cross-cutting, out-of-the box approaches for anticipating and responding
to new and emerging threats. It will also establish and support studies
and analyses to be conducted by the new Homeland Security Institute.
$22M is requested in FY 2004 for this purpose.
The scope of the work to be conducted by this budget is broad but
focused on the areas that improve our capabilities to thwart terrorist
attacks by early detection and identification of the threat, effective
protection and intervention technologies, mitigation of potential
consequences should an attack occur, and a robust forensics and attribution
capability. Our strategy includes early deployment of off-the-shelf
technologies to provide initial defensive capability and near-term
utilization of emerging technologies to counter today's terrorist
threats and the development of new capabilities to thwart future
and emerging threats. A key part of our efforts will be conducted
through the Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency to
engage industry, academia, government, and other sectors in innovative
research and development to meet operational needs. Although I have
described the budget request along product lines, such as biological
and chemical countermeasures, it is our estimate that at least $350M
of the overall request will be carried out by HSARPA in FY 2004.
Mr. Chairman and members of the subcommittee, this concludes my prepared
statement. I would be pleased to address any questions.