Internet Europe: Hacktivism, Cyberterrorism Or Online Democracy?
Have you ever felt you'd like to protest but you are too old, to
busy and too tired to join a street rally?
19 March 2001, 5 pm GMT
by Paola Di Maio (courtesy of Content
Hacktivism has been recently defined by a newspaper article in
the Guardian as "a highly politicised underground movement
using direct action in cyberspace to attack globalisation and corporate
domination of the internet"
Targets, mainly multinational corporations and political organizations,
are hit with a range of electronic weapons, from viruses to email
bombs, which crash websites by bombarding them with thousands of
protest messages, said an article.
Last week an organisation called netstrike.it encouraged online
surfers to log on a target address to use up all its bandwidth and
clog the online access to the site.
The action was part of a series of activities against the Global
Summit held in Naples last Saturday, which ended up in a violent
riot with the authorities and produced two hundred casualties.
"We think that it's right and necessary to enter in the contents
of the Global Forum about e-government: for this reason we want
to oppose the actual function of technologies, used to grow speculations
and social control, with an antagonist use of the new technologies.
So we are organising a netstrike against the trading on-line for
the first day of the Global Forum, and our goal is to block, also
if only partially, the highways of globalisation, the main points
of the global economy." said the manifesto that was circulated
online, followed by the instructions on how to join the protest.
"Netstrike, or cyber-rally, is the equivalent of an online
demonstration where people take up the streets. Here, we take up
the bandwidth of the digital highway in just the same way. We do
this to demonstrate dissent and to protest against a particular
company or activity, and the disruption goes on as long as long
as the demonstration goes on" explains Tommaso Tozzi, intellectual
and media lecturer in Florence.
Paul Mobbs , a British hacktivist from a group called 'electrohippies
collective' co-hosted a meeting recently at the ICA in London to
discuss how hactivism "It removes the advantages that larger
or mainstream groups possess, for example money, influence and preferential
access to media. No longer are small minorities restricted by lack
of access. On the internet all access is roughly equal."
"I just want to have the open debate" commented Mobbs
during an online discussion "I think people in the UK are now
waking up to this in retrospect. Unless we have the open debate
so the public can understand the issues involved in hacktivism,
then all hackers will be subjected to the same bullshit we have
had in the UK over the past year. The only reason Jack Straw, the
Home Secretary, was able to get the Terrorism and RIP legislation
through Parliament was because nobody knew about the issues. Consequently
they just believed the bullshit he peddled them about the risks
to the public from people bent on 'disrupting electronic networks'.
Now suddenly we can be classed as terrorists for planning online
protest action" continued Mobbs.
"Hacktivists have provided a new political ethic for the hacking
activity of the past 'that tended to be more about narcissistic
power games than any real protest against the system," says
Paul Taylor, a sociology lecturer at Salford university. "Hacktivism
can be seen as the latest manifestation of a long history of opposition
to capitalism and its disorienting effects."
In Britain the Terrorism Act last month was updated to include
Cyberterrorism offences: anyone who tries to "seriously disrupt
an electronic system" with the intention of threatening or
influencing the government or the public, and does it to advance
a "political, religious or ideological cause", can be
classed as a terrorist.
But the origins and motives of hacking are still controversial.
Not only hackers - who spot vulnerabilities and fix them - must
be distinguished from crackers - who spot vulnerabilities to exploit
them, but their degree of political commitment can vary a lot.
"Some hackers are apolitical, stereotypical computer nerds.
But most aren't, though they don't all want to engage in politics
through computer attacks, cracking, etc" reminds Amy Alexander
So while governments discuss how to possibly adopt e-government
policies, and how to run cybergovernments with real cyberelections,
net hacktivists are getting organized and show people how to protest
online, if that's what they want to do.