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Washington File
13 March 2001

Text: FBI-Backed Survey Shows Increasing Computer Crime

(Reported financial losses triple since late 1990s) (1380)

The Computer Crime and Security Survey, commissioned by the Federal
Bureau of Investigation (FBI), shows U.S. businesses suffering
increasing financial losses as a result of crime and information
security breaches. The findings are described in a March 12 press
release issued by the Computer Security Institute (CSI), a
California-based association of information security professionals.

More than 500 computer security officials in a cross section of U.S.
businesses and institutions participated in the survey, the sixth
annual report conducted by CSI. Eighty-five percent reported that
their organization had experienced some form of security breach in the
year prior to the survey.

Only 186 of the respondents -- 35 percent -- agreed to provide
information about financial losses their organizations had incurred as
a result of the computer crimes. They reported losses totaling almost
$378 million, as compared to $265 million in losses reported in 2000
by about 250 respondents. The CSI press release says the average
annual total losses over the three years prior to 2000 was about $120

The FBI's Northern California office, the home of a computer crime
investigative unit, was closely involved in the research. Speaking for
that office, Bruce J. Gebhardt said, "The results of this year's
survey again demonstrate the seriousness and complexity of computer
crime. The dynamic vulnerabilities associated with conducting business
online remain a law enforcement challenge."

FBI spokesman Bill Carter in Washington said the annual survey allows
law enforcement agencies to assess the magnitude of cyber crime, and
better inform decisions about how to dedicate resources to the

A complete copy of the survey can be ordered through e-mail at

Further information about computer crime and how to prevent it is
available from the FBI's National Infrastructure Protection Center at

Following is the text of the CSI press release.

(begin text)


March 12


SAN FRANCISCO - The Computer Security Institute (CSI) announced today
the results of its sixth annual "Computer Crime and Security Survey."

The "Computer Crime and Security Survey" is conducted by CSI with the
participation of the San Francisco Federal Bureau of Investigation's
(FBI) Computer Intrusion Squad. The aim of this effort is to raise the
level of security awareness, as well as help determine the scope of
computer crime in the United States.

Based on responses from 538 computer security practitioners in U.S.
corporations, government agencies, financial institutions, medical
institutions and universities, the findings of the "2001 Computer
Crime and Security Survey" confirm that the threat from computer crime
and other information security breaches continues unabated and that
the financial toll is mounting.

Highlights of the "2001 Computer Crime and Security Survey" include:

-- Eighty-five percent of respondents (primarily large corporations
and government agencies) detected computer security breaches within
the last twelve months.

-- Sixty-four percent acknowledged financial losses due to computer

-- Thirty-five percent (186 respondents) were willing and/or able to
quantify their financial losses. These 186 respondents reported
$377,828,700 in financial losses. (In contrast, the losses from 249
respondents in 2000 totaled only $265,589,940. The average annual
total over the three years prior to 2000 was $120,240,180.)

-- As in previous years, the most serious financial losses occurred
through theft of proprietary information (34 respondents reported
$151,230,100) and financial fraud (21 respondents reported

-- For the fourth year in a row, more respondents (70%) cited their
Internet connection as a frequent point of attack than cited their
internal systems as a frequent point of attack (31%). Indeed, the rise
in those citing their Internet connections as a frequent point of
attack rose from 59% in 2000 to 70% in 2001.

-- Thirty-six percent of respondents reported the intrusions to law
enforcement; a significant increase from 2000, when only 25% reported
them. (In 1996, only 16% acknowledged reporting intrusions to law

Respondents detected a wide range of attacks and abuses. Here are some
examples of attacks and abuses on the rise:

-- Forty percent of respondents detected system penetration from the
outside (only 25% reported system penetration in 2000).

-- Thirty-eight percent of respondents detected denial of service
attacks (only 27% reported denial of service in 2000).

-- Ninety-one percent detected employee abuse of Internet access
privileges (for example, downloading pornography or pirated software,
or inappropriate use of e-mail systems). Only 79% detected net abuse
in 2000.

-- Ninety-four percent detected computer viruses (only 85% detected
them in 2000).

For the third year, we asked some questions about electronic commerce
over the Internet. Here are some of the results:

-- Ninety-seven percent of respondents have WWW sites.

-- Forty-seven percent conduct electronic commerce on their sites.

-- Twenty-three percent suffered unauthorized access or misuse within
the last twelve months. Twenty-seven percent said that they didn't
know if there had been unauthorized access or misuse.

-- Twenty-one percent of those acknowledging attacks reported from two
to five incidents. Fifty-eight percent reported ten or more incidents.

-- Ninety percent of those attacked reported vandalism (only 64% in

-- Seventy-eight percent reported denial of service (only 60% in

-- Thirteen percent reported theft of transaction information (only 8%
in 2000).

-- Eight percent reported financial fraud (only 3% in 2000).

Patrice Rapalus, CSI Director, remarks that the "Computer Crime and
Security Survey," now in its sixth year, has served as a reality check
for industry and government:

"Each year, the influence and impact of the CSI/FBI Computer Crime and
Security Survey grows. It is an invaluable tool for information
security practitioners in corporations and government agencies
struggling to get the attention of their CEOs, CIOs and CFOs as well
as for law enforcement officials working to make the case for closer
cooperation with the private sector to stave off a cyber crime wave.
The survey results over the years offer compelling evidence that
neither technologies nor policies alone really offer an effective
defense for your organization. Intrusions take place despite the
presence of firewalls. Theft of trade secrets takes place despite the
presence of encryption. Net abuse flourishes despite corporate edicts
against it. Organizations that want to survive in the coming years
need to develop a comprehensive approach to information security,
embracing both the human and technical dimensions. They also need to
properly fund, train, staff and empower those tasked with
enterprise-wide information security."

Bruce J. Gebhardt is in charge of the FBI's Northern California
office. Based in San Francisco, his division covers fifteen counties,
including the continually expanding Silicon Valley area. Computer
crime is one of his biggest challenges.

"The results of this year's survey again demonstrate the seriousness
and complexity of computer crime. The dynamic vulnerabilities
associated with conducting business on-line remain a law enforcement
challenge. In an effort to address this challenge the FBI and private
sector have joined forces in an information sharing initiative named
'InfraGard.' For more information about InfraGard, please contact your
local FBI office or visit the InfraGard website at www.infagard.net."

CSI, established in 1974, is a San Francisco-based association of
information security professionals. It has thousands of members
worldwide and provides a wide variety of information and education
programs to assist practitioners in protecting the information assets
of corporations and governmental organizations.

The FBI, in response to an expanding number of instances in which
criminals have targeted major components of information and economic
infrastructure systems, has established the National Infrastructure
Protection Center (NIPC) located at FBI headquarters and the Regional
Computer Intrusion Squads located in selected offices throughout the
United States. The NIPC, a joint partnership among federal agencies
and private industry, is designed to serve as the government's lead
mechanism for preventing and responding to cyber attacks on the
nation's infrastructures. (These infrastructures include
telecommunications, energy, transportation, banking and finance,
emergency services and government operations). The mission of Regional
Computer Intrusion Squads is to investigate violations of Computer
Fraud and Abuse Act (Title 8, Section 1030), including intrusions to
public switched networks, major computer network intrusions, privacy
violations, industrial espionage, pirated computer software and other

(end text)

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