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Cybercrime Terms

4-1-9 / Advanced Fee Fraud
Identy Theft

4-1-9 / Advanced Fee Fraud -
'419' Letters are distributed by post, fax and email. In a typical '419' (advanced fee fraud) letter, the author purports to be a senior government or central bank official who has managed to over inflate a contract, generating a personal profit. In return for help smuggling money out of the country, the recipient is offered a percentage, usually between 10% and 30%. At first no money is requested but once a victim has been drawn in, requests are made for legal and administrative costs. Victims have lost hundreds of thousands of pounds in some cases. (NCIS)

Identity theft -
is a federal crime. It occurs when one person’s identification (which can include name, social security number, or any account number) is used or transferred by another person for unlawful activities. (DOJ)

Phishing -
is a general term for criminals’ creation and use of e-mails and websites – designed to look like e-mails and websites of wellknown legitimate businesses, financial institutions, and government agencies – in order to deceive Internet users into disclosing their bank and financial account information or other personal data such as usernames and passwords. The “phishers” then take that information and use it for criminal purposes, such as identity theft and fraud. (DOJ)


'Today’s economic competition is global. The conquest of markets and technologies has replaced former territorial and colonial conquests. We are living in a state of world economic war and this is not just a military metaphor...the companies are training the armies and the unemployed are the casualties.'

Spoken at a Paris conference on economic espionage, by Bernard Esambert, President of the French Pasteur Institute

Essential Documents

4-1-9 / Advance Fee Fraud

United States Secret Service: Advance Fee Fraud Advisory
- Public Awareness Advisory regarding "4-1-9" or"Advance Fee Fraud" Schemes

UNIRAS Briefing - 212/01 - Advanced Fee Fraud - UNIRAS is receiving increasing numbers of reports concerning 'advanced fee fraud'. The following advice has been drafted with the assistance of the National Criminal Intelligence Service(NCIS).

Economic Espionage

Economic Espionage - a threat to corporate America, Infocon Magazine Issue One, October 2003

Economic Espionage Interview with David Cid, Infocon Magazine Issue One, October 2003

  US Economic Espionage Act of 1996 in pdf format


The Cost of Cyber Crime, UK Cabinet Office February 2011

Insider Threat Study: Illicit Cyber Activity in the Banking and Finance Sector, this report presents research conducted by the U. S. Secret Service and CERT/CC. Drawing on case records, investigative reports, and interviews, it analyzes technical and behavioral indicators for the early detection of illicit cyber activity by organizational insiders, August 2004. CERT® Coordination Center (CERT® is a registered service mark of Carnegie Mellon University)

Electronic Crime Scene Investigation: A Guide for First Responders [ 870K] by the National Institute of Justice (July 2001) Computers and other electronic devices are being used increasingly to commit, enable, or support crimes against persons, organizations, or property. This NIJ Guide (NCJ 187736) is intended for use by law enforcement and other responders who have the responsibility for protecting an electronic crime scene and for the recognition, collection, and preservation of electronic evidence. The document is not all-inclusive. Rather, it deals with the most common situations encountered with electronic evidence.

Oversight Hearing on "Fighting Cyber Crime - Hearing 1 to 3: Efforts by State and Local Officials" -- May / June , 2001

Creating a Safer Information Society by Improving the Security of Information Infrastructures and Combating Computer-related Crime The European Commission is participating in a number of initiatives aiming at making communications networks like the Internet safer from criminal activity.
It adopted on 26.1.2001 the above Communication to the Council and the European Parliament (COM(2000)890)

State and Local Law Enforcement Needs to Combat Electronic Crime NCJ 183451 publication from the US National Institute of Justice. It identifies issues and obstacles that interfere with the effective investigation of cybercrime. (August 2000)

Employees' Guide to Security Responsibility This security guide is based on an organizational framework and core content developed at the Security Research Center of the Defense Security Service. The core content is Unclassified and has been approved for public release by the Department of Defense.

Identity Theft

Identity Theft: Assessing the Problem and Efforts to Combat It, Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, Committee on Energy and Commerce, December 15, 2003

Information Compromise and the Risk of Identity Theft: Guidance for Your Business, FTC, December 2003

ID Theft: When Bad Things Happen To Your Good Name, Federal Trade Commission Facts for Consumers, November 2003

ID Theft: What's It All About?, FTC, October 2003

Hearing entitled “Fighting Identity Theft — The Role of FCRA”, Subcommittee on Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit, Tuesday, June 24, 2003

"Identity Theft" booklet
Federal Reserve Board, Release Date: January 16, 2003

GAO Identity Theft - Greater Awareness and Use of Existing Data Are Needed, GAO-02-766, June 2002

GAO Identity Theft: Prevalence and Cost Appear to Be Growing [950K ] GAO-02-363, March 1, 2002.

"Privacy, Identity Theft, and the Protection of Your Personal Information in the 21st Century? " Senate Judiciary Committee, Subcommittee on Technology, Terrorism and Government Information, February 14, 2002

Phishing (ID Theft)

Special Report on “Phishing”, US Department of Justice, March 2004

How Not to Get Hooked by a 'Phishing' Scam, FTC Consumer Alert, July 2003

Identity Thief Goes “Phishing” for Consumers’ Credit Information, FTC, July 2003



FBI Says Web "Spoofing" Scams are a Growing Problem, July 2003

NCIX counterintelligence awareness booklet Be Alert!, July 2003

Factsheet Operation E-Con: cracking down on Internet crime
, DOJ, 16 May, 2003

Joint Hearing entitled “Fighting Fraud: Improving Information Security”
, Subcommittees on Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit And Oversight and Investigations, 03 April 2003.

NCIX: Spotlight on Two Chinese Tech Transfer Groups in Japan
, March 18, 2003

Global Issues: Arresting Transnational Crime, An Electronic Journal of the U.S. Department of State - August 2001 Volume 6, Number 2

Organized Crime and Cybercrime: Synergies, Trends, and Responses
by Phil Williams (Distributed by the Office of International Information Programs, U.S. Department of State 13 August 2001)

Attorney General Remarks, Cybercrime Announcement (July 20, 2001) on the formation of ten highly specialized prosecutorial units dedicated to fighting crime in cyberspace. These new teams of prosecutors, which will be known as Computer Hacking and Intellectual Property units – or CHIP units – will prosecute a wide range of computer crimes.' CHIP Fact sheet

Read CHIP announcement

Read CHIP factsheet

FBI-Backed Survey Shows Increasing Computer Crime 13/03/2001

The Impact of International Organized Crime on U.S. National Security Strategy by Steven R. Pelley, Strategy Research Project, March 2001

Department of Energy: National Security Controls Over Contractors Traveling to Foreign Countries Need Strengthening, United States General Accounting Office Report to Congressional Requesters, June 2000

Occasional Paper #32 - Cyberterrorism and Computer Crimes: Issues Surrounding the Establishment of an International Legal Regime by Richard W. Aldrich,USAF Institute for National Security Studies USAF Academy, Colorado, April 2000

Cybercrime, Transnational Crime and Intellectual Property Theft
Hearing before the Joint Economic Committee, March 24, 1998

Economic Espionage, Technology Transfers and National Security Hearing before the Joint Economic Committee, June 17, 1997 

Economic Espionage Information on Threat From U.S. Allies Statement for the Record by David E. Cooper, Associate Director, Defense Acquisitions Issues, National Security and International Affairs Division, Testimony Before the Select Committee on Intelligence United States Senate February 28, 1996

Annual Congress Reports

Annual Report to Congress on Foreign Economic Collection and Industrial Espionage 2003 [1.4 MB]

Annual Report to Congress on Foreign Economic Collection and Industrial Espionage 2002

Annual Report to Congress on Foreign Economic Collection and Industrial Espionage 2001

Annual Report to Congress on Foreign Economic Collection and Industrial Espionage 2000

Foreign Industrial and Economic Espionage Remains a Threat in 1999

Annual Report to Congress on Foreign Economic Collection and Industrial Espionage 1998

Annual Report to Congress on Foreign Economic Collection and Industrial Espionage 1997

Annual Report to Congress on Foreign Economic Collection and Industrial Espionage 1996

Annual Report to Congress on Foreign Economic Collection and Industrial Espionage 1995


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Australian High Tech Crime Centre (AHTCC), The concept of a national centre to coordinate the efforts of Australian law enforcement in combating serious crime involving complex technology was a priority identified by the Australian Police Commissioners Conference in its Electronic Crime Strategy, March 2001 and endorsed by the Australasian Police Ministers Council in November 2002. Various options were subsequently considered for delivering this capability. The final preference of the Australian Police Commissioners was the creation of a single centre, the Australian High Tech Crime Centre (AHTCC), to be hosted by the Australian Federal Police (AFP) in Canberra and include representation from all Australian State and Territory police forces both in its staff and Board of Management.

United Kingdom

Government Communications Headquarters The web site of the 'British NSA'

National Criminal Intelligence Service (UK) '(NCIS) is the UK law enforcement agency which gathers and analyses intelligence on serious and organised crime. It looks at these groups and the individuals masterminding them, as they affect the UK and its interests. NCIS is at the forefront of the fight against serious and organised crime in the UK and throughout the world.'

National Hi-Tech Crime Unit

United States

National Counterintelligence Center (NACIC) coordinates the US Government's effort to identify and counter foreign intelligence threats to US national and economic security.

National Security Agency 'The National Security Agency is the Nation's cryptologic organization. It coordinates, directs, and performs highly specialized activities to protect U.S. information systems and produce foreign intelligence information. A high technology organization, NSA is on the frontiers of communications and data processing. It is also one of the most important centers of foreign language analysis and research within the Government.'


The Institute for Communications Arbitration and Forensics 'ICAF is a professional body set up by the Communications Management Association (CMA) in response to demand from senior ICT professionals in business, industry and the public services. It is leading the way in the
fight against cyber-crime.'

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